At Columbia Business School Public Offering blog, read Rita McGrath’s posting: We’ve been down this road before, and seldom has the ending been pretty. General Motors and the other American carmakers are textbook cases of what one of my colleagues famously called “permanently failing” organizations. The syndrome of permanent failure afflicts supposedly for-profit organizations that create no economic value or that even destroy economic value. This syndrome often persists because a coalition of stakeholders comes to value the organization as an organization—as an institution— and its survival becomes an end in itself. The webs connecting the entities that benefit from the company’s ongoing existence are so strong that they dominate all decision making. GM, depending on whose analysis you read, is widely recognized as having destroyed billions of dollars in economic value, and it has been unsuccessful in its half-hearted efforts at transformation since at least the 1970s. To read the entire blog, click here.